Browsing: The Global Economy & Currencies

The Global Economy & Currencies

FACTOR INVESTING MADE IN CHINA Harvesting Factor Returns in the Middle Kingdom

Dec 13th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, The Global Economy & Currencies, Economics, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics

By Nicolas Rabener, CAIA, Factor Research Summary: Common equity factors generated attractive risk-adjusted returns in the Chinese stock market Factor performance in China often mirrors global factor performance Indicates common factor drivers that permeate even emerging and isolated markets INTRODUCTION Economic news like changes in GDP growth are frequently usedRead More


ISSA Reports on the Crypto-Infrastructure

Dec 12th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, The A.I. Industry, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Frontier markets, Other Topics in A.I.

This has been a terrible year for cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin, the flagship for the asset class, peaked in the middle of December 2017 at a value of above $17,000. By the end of January this year, it was below $10,000. By September BTC had settled into a price range of $6,500.Read More


A Move from Otherness to Better Global Governance 

Dec 10th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, What about beta?, The Global Economy & Currencies, Economics, Macroeconomics

By Bill Kelly, CEO, CAIA Association The resolution season will soon be upon us. Many will aspire to eat less, exercise more, be better partners or parents, or maybe even sit for the March 2019 CAIA Exam. Resolve doesn’t always make it across the finish line though, even with the very best ofRead More


Distressed Debt: What Happens When the Tree Stops Growing?

Dec 9th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Hedge Fund Strategies, The A.I. Industry, Hedge Funds, Event-Driven Hedge Funds, The Global Economy & Currencies, Economics, Macro and Managed Futures Funds, Finance & Economics

Distressed debt markets have four themes emerging, according to a new paper issued by the Wells Fargo Investment Institute They are: the consequences of central bank tightenings around the globe; the elevation of debt levels, also something happening globally; the regulatory pressure over non-conforming loans (especially in Europe); and theRead More


Jeff Diehl: The View from SuperReturn Japan, Part I

Dec 4th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Private Equity, The A.I. Industry, Debt Types of Private Equity, Venture capital, Equity Types of Private Equity, The Global Economy & Currencies, Other Issues in Private Investments, Economics, Private Investments, Frontier markets, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics

On Wednesday, December 5, in Tokyo, Japan, the SuperReturn Japan 2018 event convenes. CAIA is a sponsor of this event. Jeff Diehl, managing partner at Adams Street Partners, a multi-national investment manager with more than $35 billion in assets under management, is attending. He will participate in a panel WednesdayRead More


Steamrollers, Geniuses and Market Crashes

Nov 27th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Hedge Fund Operations and Risk Management, The A.I. Industry, Risk management, Operations, Hedge Funds, The Global Economy & Currencies, Risk Management Strategies & Processes, Relative Value Hedge Funds, Risk Management & Operations, Finance & Economics

McGraw Hill Education has brought out a new book by Bruce I. Jacobs, of Jacobs Levy Equity Management. The book, Too Smart for our Own Good, concerns “ingenious investment strategies, illusions of safety, and market crashes.” The thesis is that the financial crises of recent decades are the consequence ofRead More


Picnicking and Nitpicking  

Nov 19th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, What about beta?, The Global Economy & Currencies, Economics, Finance & Economics

By Bill Kelly, CEO, CAIA Association What is a complex transaction without a battery of lawyers to paper it up. These legal minds are an integral part of most transactions and their presence is mostly felt at the time of deal creation and, maybe even more so, when things go offRead More


The Trinity Of Errors In Financial Models: An Introductory Analysis

Oct 24th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, Financial Economics Theory, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics

By Deepak Kanungo, Founder and CEO of Hedged Capital LLC In this introductory article, we explore three types of errors inherent in all financial models. We examine these errors using a simple probabilistic model that can be used for predicting the federal funds rate, an interest rate of seminal importanceRead More


 Shariah Finance, Volatility, Clientele Effects

Oct 23rd, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, Financial Economics Theory, The Global Economy & Currencies, Emerging markets, Frontier markets, Finance & Economics

Two recent scholarly papers take distinctive looks at the sukuk market in Malaysia. Accordingly, each contributes to the ongoing discussions and evaluations of the place of Islamic finance within the broader global (and alpha-seeking) picture. Sukuk are bond-like instruments structured to pay profit, not interest, that are sold chiefly toRead More


Modi Operandi

Oct 1st, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, What about beta?, The A.I. Industry, The Global Economy & Currencies, Emerging markets, Frontier markets, Macroeconomics

By Bill Kelly, CEO, CAIA Association What’s your liquidity M.O.? If you are less than certain, it is time to look east toward the country of India and the land of Modi. After all, when 1.3 billion people cough there is a decent chance the rest of the world justRead More


Cryptocurrency Arbitrage: Two Looks

Sep 27th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, The A.I. Industry, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

Do investors arbitrage cryptocurrencies? Two recent studies offer a “yes” answer, though they in certain other respects differ significantly in their conclusions. Specifically, one study shows that in one respect arbitrage has done its duty and effectively eliminated the opportunities for arb profits, enforcing efficiency. In other situations, though, theRead More


The View from Las Vegas: Quiet Buying? Aggressive Buying?

Sep 23rd, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, Emerging Alternative Investments, Emerging markets, Digital currencies, Commodities, Personalities in AI, Alternative Investments in Context, Commodities: Examples, Gold

On Sept. 24, the 9th Annual Inside Alternatives and Asset Allocation event convenes at Wynn Las Vegas, with CAIA sponsorship. The purpose of the event: to look beyond traditional alternative investments and strategies, to take the measure of a new breed of alternatives, including impact/SRIs, cryptocurrencies, and the application ofRead More


10 Years Later: Glasner Looks Back at the GFC

Sep 20th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, Equity Hedge Funds, Hedge Funds, The Global Economy & Currencies, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics

David Glasner, an economist with the Federal Trade Commission, in a new Mercatus Research Paper, offers what he calls a “deeper explanation of the financial crisis of 2008 and the subsequent recovery.” Deeper than what? Deeper than attributing the bust to the bursting of the housing price bubble. Glasner’s newRead More


Prepping for an Emerging Market Rebound

Sep 17th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, The A.I. Industry, The Global Economy & Currencies, Emerging markets, Finance & Economics

Two executives at the Neuberger Berman Group have prepared a paper on what they call the “overall case for a recovery in emerging market debts” in the months to come. Investors will want to “be around” for such a rebound, they say. There are obviously now, and there will continueRead More


Are ICOs Encoding Their Governance Promises?

Sep 16th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, The A.I. Industry, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

Scholars affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania recently produced a paper about digital currencies and initial coin offerings, “Coin Operated Capitalism.” The gist of the paper is that the purchase of such tokens may be riskier than investors have thus far been led to expect and may entail more risk thanRead More


Back to the 1980s for future market insights

Sep 6th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, Business News, Economics, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

Christina Zhu, of the University of Pennsylvania, in a recent paper, looks at the consequences of Big Data for corporate management. What “Big Data” means depends on who is talking or writing about it. For economists working within the classic microeconomic framework, it means a drastic fall in the cost of acquiring information.Read More


Cryptocurrencies: Alpha and Malta

Aug 30th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, The A.I. Industry, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Other Topics in A.I.

Malta was the first jurisdiction within the EU to develop a regulatory system for collective investment schemes that invest in cryptocurrencies. A new paper offering what it calls a “top-down analysis” of hedge funds involved with cryptos details the regulatory framework now in force in Malta, highlighting the set-up andRead More


Hedging or Trading? Why Italian Banks Use Derivatives

Aug 23rd, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Derivatives, The A.I. Industry, Risk management, Hedge Funds, Credit Derivatives, The Global Economy & Currencies, Commodities, Economics, Institutional Asset Management, Risk Management Strategies & Processes, Risk Management & Operations

A recent report by the Bank of Italy looks at why the various banks of Italy use derivatives. Specifically, the central bank of that country wanted to know: is it a matter of hedging? Or is it a matter of keeping a proprietary book? Hedge fund managers and other pursuersRead More


Liquidity: The Taxi-onomy of Supply and Demand 

Aug 13th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, What about beta?, The Global Economy & Currencies, Macroeconomics

By Bill Kelly, CEO, CAIA Association The CAIA Association has partnered with AIMA to develop a series of educational papers designed to equip trustees and other fiduciaries with the proper tools to assist them in their risk oversight responsibilities. The third installment covered the use and deployment of leverage in alternative funds and we are now putting theRead More


The Structure of the Securities Lending Market

Aug 2nd, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Financial Economics Theory, Behavioral finance, The Global Economy & Currencies, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics

An author affiliated with the National University of Singapore and one with Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany, have co-authored a paper on the structure of the securities lending market: specifically, on the fact that this market is an oligopoly, and on the implications that has for pricing. The general outlines areRead More


Active Management, the Business Cycle, and the Silk Road

Jul 31st, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Retail Investing, Alpha & Beta, The Global Economy & Currencies, Macroeconomics, Allocating to A.I., Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

LPL Financial’s 2018 Forum Conference for investors took place in Boston this week, Sunday through Tuesday. This is an annual event that brings together thousands of advisors and program managers to discuss industry issues and new products. LPL is an independent broker-dealer headquartered in Boston, with offices in Fort Mill,Read More


Centralized Exchanges and Cryptocurrencies

Jul 26th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Investing in Commodities, Financial Economics Theory, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Commodities, Finance & Economics

Cryptocurrencies are increasingly traded on centralized exchanges, such as Gemini and Coinbase. This fact itself has generated some resentment in the crypto world, because the very idea of  centralized exchange seems to violate the original anarchic animating spirit of the cryptocurrencies, even of “Satoshi” himself. Vitalik Buterin, who as the creatorRead More


BarclayHedge Numbers Show Cryptocurrency Dive

Jul 19th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, CTA, The A.I. Industry, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Commodities, Macro and Managed Futures Funds, Other Topics in A.I.

BarclayHedge says that its flash estimate for the Barclay CTA Index shows a 0.05% loss in June, and a 2% loss year to date. More remarkably, the flash estimate shows a 16.23% drop in June and a 45.43% drop YTD for the CryptoCurrency Traders Index. The founder and president ofRead More


The Crypto ‘Bubble’ as Seen From Boston College

Jul 5th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Other Topics in A.I.

Two scholars affiliated with Boston College, Carroll School of Management, have published a study of initial coin offerings (ICOs), that has given a mixed verdict on the common contention that cryptocurrencies in general and ICOs in particular constitute a “bubble” akin to, say, 17th century tulips or the mortgage derivativesRead More


The Efficiency of the Markets in Crypto-Currencies

Jun 28th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Financial Economics Theory, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Finance & Economics

Three scholars affiliated with Johns Hopkins have evaluated cryptocurrency investing, in a new paper available at SSRN, and have concluded that “near-term cryptocurrency markets are semi-strong form efficient.” That bit of finance theorist jargon means that all publicly available information gets discounted quickly into an asset’s price, so that neitherRead More


A Talk on the What and Whys of Cryptocurrencies

Jun 20th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

The Battle of the Quants came to New York City on Wednesday, June 20, and the CAIA Association was one of its media sponsors. Much of the event involved cryptocurrencies, including an exchange between John D’Agostino (the global head of investor engagement at DMS Governance) and Nouriel Roubini, Chairman ofRead More


Africa Still Rising (but Patience May Be Required)

Jun 12th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Private Equity, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, High-net-worth investors, Emerging markets, Private Investments, Other Topics in A.I.

The Emerging Markets Private Equity Association, in a new report, suggests that the “Africa Rising” narrative of a few years ago is behind us. Africa is seen still as having enormous potential. But the report also says, “the commodity downturn of the last several years has had a severe impactRead More


Eurekahedge on Japan as an Investment Mandate

May 24th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Institutional Investing, The Global Economy & Currencies, Institutional Asset Management, Macroeconomics, Allocating to A.I.

Eurekahedge has recently concluded its fifth annual survey of asset managers with mandates to invest in Japan. In the words of Eurekahedge chairman and CEO, Satoshi Iwanaga: “Survey results for 2018 suggest that central bank normalization is still a long way off in Japan, with investors continuing to reduce theirRead More


Bitcoin Futures ETFs: SEC Requests Comment

Apr 8th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Financial Economics Theory, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

In December last year the NYSE Arca Inc. filed a proposed rule change that would allow for the creation of Exchange Traded Funds investing in Bitcoin futures contracts, and, potentially, in other related Financial Instruments. In January 2018 the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission extended its review of this proposal.Read More


Reducing Dependence on (L)IBOR

Mar 15th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, Risk Metrics and Measurement, Risk Management & Operations, Finance & Economics

A creation of the mid-1980s, the London Interbank Offered rate (LIBOR) became immensely influential over the three decades that followed. It became a reference rate for both finance and commerce for the rate of nearly risk-free interest, and in the process it spawned other IBORs, including EURIBOR and Japan’s TIBOR.Read More


PE and VC Opportunities in 21st Century India

Feb 13th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Private Equity, Currencies, Venture capital, Equity Types of Private Equity, The Global Economy & Currencies, Private Investments, Finance & Economics

ARA Law, a firm based in Mumbai and Bangalore, India, has issued a paper on private equity and venture capital in that country. In a foreword, firm founder Rajesh N. Begur observes that there is a positive dynamic now at work in India’s economy, one that in his view “canRead More


What CTAs Think about Bitcoin Futures

Jan 25th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, CTA, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Commodities, Macro and Managed Futures Funds, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

A new BarclayHedge study indicates that the majority of commodity trading advisers surveyed are unenthusiastic about the new Bitcoin futures. Specifically, asked “do you consider Bitcoin futures to be a valuable/useful addition to a diversified futures portfolio?” nearly three quarters (73%) said “no.” The sample for this survey included firmsRead More


Aquila Asks: Who’s Afraid of Pricey Markets?

Jan 18th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, Commodities, Commodities: Examples, Gold, Finance & Economics

A new paper from Aquila Capital Group looks at managed futures, and makes the case that they offer investments tools with which one can achieve a “robust and diversifying risk/return profile.” The paper begins with the concerns many investors have at present. Record long bull markets, high asset prices, andRead More


CRYPTOCURRENCIES – HOT BUY OR HOT AIR?

Jan 17th, 2018 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Other Topics in A.I.

By Diane Harrison With traditional stock markets offering robust gains in 2017 and looking poised to continue their attractiveness in 2018, investors need strong persuasion to shift their equity allocations elsewhere. Enter the latest media darling: cryptocurrencies. The alternatives news feeds are awash in stories extolling the meteoric rise ofRead More


Deloitte on Initial Coins Offerings (ICOs) as IPOs

Dec 10th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Other Issues in Private Investments, Private Investments, Other Topics in A.I.

An October 2017 white paper from Deloitte discusses the extent to which the offerings of tokens built upon blockchains have become the new IPOs of the crypto era. There are no binding rules about how to execute an initial coin offering (ICO). Nonetheless, there have been enough of these soRead More


Regulatory Challenges Posed by Crypto Funds

Dec 5th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Hedge Funds, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Commodities, Finance & Economics

A forthcoming paper in the Stanford Journal of Law, Business, and Finance looks at the cryptocurrency markets (bitcoin and its kin), the hedge funds that look to make money from them and the operational issues involved. Two independent scholars collaborated on writing the paper: Edmund Mokhtarian and Alexander Lindgren. AlthoughRead More


Artificial Intelligence and Productivity: NBER Takes a Look

Nov 21st, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, Business News, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics

A new working paper from the National Bureau of Economic Research, in Cambridge, Mass., discusses what its authors see as a paradox: although artificial intelligence has made astonishing advances in the last 20 years, taking along with it related technologies and stock prices, real income has stagnated, and productivity seemsRead More


China and a Reduced Form Bayesian VAR

Oct 29th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, Commodities, Finance & Economics

What the heck does the forbidding phrase “reduced form Bayesian VAR” mean? Let’s break this down. The VAR in question isn’t VaR (Value at Risk). It’s Vector Autoregression. This is a stochastic process model employed to understand the linear dependences among multiple time series. Each variable in a VAR hasRead More


BIS Numbers and the Market for Forex NDFs

Jun 1st, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Algorithmic and high-frequency trading, Forex, The Global Economy & Currencies, Business News, Finance & Economics

A little over a year ago, the Bank for International Settlements announced its 11th Triennial Central Bank Survey of Foreign Exchange and Over the Counter Derivatives Market Activity. In recent days, Pragma Securities has referenced those BIS numbers in explaining the market for its latest service, an expansion of PragmaRead More


The Cryptocurrency Ecosystem: A New Benchmark Study

May 16th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

It is clear by now to even the most hardened skeptic that cryptocurrency, the class of assets of which bitcoin is the paradigm, is much more than a passing fad. Yes, the field may once have been too closely associated with survivalists, cranks, and bit players in the story ofRead More


The Case for Bargain Hunting in South Africa

Apr 18th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, The Global Economy & Currencies, Emerging markets

Charles Roth, of Thornburg Investment Management, has made the case that markets have over-reacted to the recent political shake-up in South Africa, driving asset prices below their underlying value. Thus (although Roth doesn’t put the point quite this bluntly) this could be a time for some bargain hunting.  Finance MinistryRead More


Nation-States and Block-Chains: Vying for the Cutting Edge

Mar 21st, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Currencies, Forex, The Global Economy & Currencies

Deloitte proposes that the Swiss Confederation has a key role to play in the continued development of blockchain. In a new whitepaper, Deloitte makes this case based on Switzerland’s “special position as a global innovation centre.” There are six sides to Switzerland’s position: its FinTech infrastructure; its start-up attractiveness; itsRead More


Looking at a Continent: Stress-Testing Banks and Insurers

Mar 14th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, Economics, Finance & Economics

The European Central Bank’s financial stability review, published in November 2016, predicts “steady, but modest, euro area economic recovery, despite continued headwinds.” The review is designed to assist Europe’s policy making authorities by providing information about the bank’s microprudential and macroprudential roles, along with the risks and vulnerabilities of theRead More


On the Bitcoin Blockchain: Looking Under the Hood

Jan 19th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Algorithmic and high-frequency trading, Currencies, Emerging Alternative Investments, The Global Economy & Currencies, Digital currencies, Business News, Finance & Economics

More than a year ago, the Capco Institute Journal of Financial Transformation (Journal) ran a “critical assessment,” by Robert Sams, of bitcoin blockchains as a means of distributed clearing. With both bitcoins and blockchains newly in the news, Sams’ informed assessment is worth another look. Two years ago, Nasdaq announcedRead More


The Federal Reserve on Distributed Ledger Technology (that is, on Blockchains)

Jan 5th, 2017 | Filed under: Newly Added, Operations, The Global Economy & Currencies, Risk Management & Operations, Finance & Economics

A large team of officers and staff affiliated with the Federal Reserve (eight with the Board in DC, five with the FR Bank of New York, one with the FRB of Chicago) have collaborated on a new paper on distributed ledger technology in payments, clearing, and settlement. Of necessity, givenRead More


Natixis asks 500 institutional investors to look into the future

Dec 20th, 2016 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, High-net-worth investors, Emerging markets, Institutional Asset Management, Allocating to A.I., Finance & Economics

Natixis Global Asset Management has released the results of a survey of 500 institutional investors, asking them their views on prospects for 2017. The surveyed institutions expect that political and economic developments could cause an increase in volatility in the year to come, and active managers have to reset theirRead More


Private Equity Placements in China

Dec 8th, 2016 | Filed under: Newly Added, Private Equity, Currencies, Benchmarking & Performance Attribution, The Global Economy & Currencies, Emerging markets, Private Investments, Allocating to A.I.

A new paper by G. Nathan Dong and two other scholars investigates private equity placements in China and their consequences for the issuing firms. The study works from a natural experiment that resulted from regulations created by the PRC ten years ago. In 2006, the China Securities Regulatory Commission issuedRead More


Aftermath of 2008: Reactions to Decreased Liquidity

Nov 20th, 2016 | Filed under: Newly Added, The A.I. Industry, Liquid Alternative Investiments, Regulatory Environment, The Global Economy & Currencies, Liquid Alts, Macroeconomics, Finance & Economics, Other Topics in A.I.

A new report from State Street Corporation and the Alternative Investment Management Association says that nearly half of the market participants surveyed believe that decreased market liquidity is a secular change, not a cyclical one: that is, that it is a climate that is here to stay, not a rainRead More


Massad: Where the U.S. and the World Stand on Margins & Cap Requirements

Oct 27th, 2016 | Filed under: Newly Added, Investing in Commodities, Forex, The Global Economy & Currencies, Commodities, Finance & Economics

The chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Timothy Massad, addressed the Outlook Conference of the Managed Funds Association on October 21, and spoke about the global implementation of uncleared margin rules, which he called a critical component of “the new regulatory framework for swaps trading that the leaders ofRead More


Venezuela: Thinking of Cromwell and Crude

Oct 13th, 2016 | Filed under: Newly Added, The Global Economy & Currencies, Emerging markets, oil, Commodities, Commodities: Examples, Finance & Economics

Hedge funds, among them some of those the unsympathetic call “vultures,” bought into the bonds of the Petróleo de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) early this year. PDVSA is Venezuela’s state-owned oil company, the consequence of nationalization forty years ago. Its fate turns on (a) the vagaries of post-Chavez politics in thatRead More